Hands: Well, these are quite useless. Try to avoid using them, unless you run out of ammo and have to.
Magnum Pistol: Gun you start with. Not really good, but nice for headshots. Can be silenced.
Shotgun: Close-range gun. If you shoot good enough you can gib someone with one shot.
Assault Rifle: Great gun for long-range shooting. Can be silenced.
High Velocity Chain Gun: Extremely high firing rate. Great for medium range. Features a grenade launcher.
Crimson Spider Mine: Remote-detonated mine. Has a built-in camera.
Rocket Launcher: The gun which can be found in any major 3D FPS :)
Pulse Assault Cannon: Shoots an energy ball which creates a shock wave on impact. Lightning gun is secondary fire.
Quantum Destabilizer: You have to pick parts of this gun up during the game. Once all parts are collected this is a very powerful gun. Needs charging. If you wait too long it will explode.
Speargun: Mostly used during the underwater missions, but can be used on land. It's slow and has limited ammo though.
Sniper Rifle: Very good long-range gun with zoom but also has a slow reloading time.